Accounting Outsourcing Firm in Tokyo 【TSUJITAX】

Accounting Outsourcing Firm in Tokyo 【TSUJITAX】

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The measures for overtime pay:fixed overtime payment

As for the measures for overtime pay there is fixed overtime payment for the company which takes the system of annual salary.

For example annual salary 5 million yen is divided into 2 parts, basic annual salary 4

million yen and performance annual salary 1 million yen.

Fixed overtime payment, some portion of monthly salary allocated to overtime work

allowance, e.g. which is equivalent to 20 hours of overtime is putted into basic annual salary

Company manage hours of overtime by outside deemed working hour system.

For example when doing business outside is agreed on 7 hours and 30 minutes of

Regular working hours,

Working hours of employee who directory went to customer and went home is deemed 7 Hours and 30 minutes/

In the event that desk work plus business outside (ex. Comes to office in the morning,

do office work and go outside and come back evening and do office work for remaining

job), total working hours are 7 hours and 30 minutes plus times of office work.

 

Company manage working hours like this and company pay extra wage for overtime which exceeds 20 hours.

At first I think to grasp working hours is a start.

Company can grasp how many hours of outside business is appropriate time.

And company must know working hours from an aspect of safety consideration duty

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on the health of employees.

 

 

 

Negative effect of merit system

1.Producing results in a short period of time was regarded as important. On the other hand important subject that should be worked on in a long term, difficult subjects and subject that is not outstanding but important became negligent.

2.In the aspect of personnel development, training of subordinates and younger employees came to be kept away.

3.As degree of difficulty of the objectives, generosity and severeness of evaluation were uneven in evaluation, the distrust of evaluation was born and reduced the motivation of employees.

4.As personal result is regarded as important, communication became thin and came to affect the cooperation with the neighborhood, mutual understanding.

Reflecting on negative effects of merit system, now Japanese company try to adopt new personnel evaluation system to evaluate by total in consideration of following three points.

1. Work : Do what kind of work

2. Role : A prospective work, for example achievement of the sales target, contribution of team work, education of subordinates, improvement and suggestion for the problems in the work

3. Result : Achievement degree for the prospective role

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Pay system by merit system in Japan

After collapse of the bubble economy, the earning capacity of the company declined.

Personnel and pay system was required to convert to so called pay system by merit system from conventional pay system based on age, length of service to the system that makes much of result.

The merit system was adopted in Fujitsu, Honda and many Japanese companies, however it is evaluated now most were failure.

Because the characteristic of the merit system is that salary amount is determined according to the result. Therefore employees do not become cooperative and are going to leave a good result by personal play. If it is a European and US companies, this means will raise the motivation of employees.

But in Japanese company an employee is registered at the same company for a long time, and the connection between employees is close.

Employees do not work in individuals but work by a team unit. Even if the merit system that demands a personal play is adopted, team play would be obstructed.

One of the characteristics of Japanese management is to develop personnel by letting them move premeditatedly and repeating OJT and duties experience.

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How to decide social premiums of Japan

How to decide social premiums of Japan

At first let me explain how to decide social insurance premiums of Japan.

Monthly insurance contributions are determined according to the salary amount of insured person and are to be equally shouldered by employer and the insured person.

Insurance contributions are also collected from bonus.

The calculation of insurance premium is to multiply the monthly standard remuneration by contribution rate.

Monthly standard remuneration is determined on the average of the salary of April, May and June. If there is no big change, this is applied for one year. In other word it means the premium does not change.

Company submits social insurance premium assessment basis forms to Pension Office in July.

 

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Estimated income tax prepayment

1 What is estimated income tax prepayment?

If the estimated income tax amount for the year, which is calculated based on your previous year’s income and tax fixed as of May 15 of the year (hereinafter referred to as a “base amount of estimated income tax prepayment”), is ¥150,000 or more, you must make prepayments as a part of income tax for the year.
This system is called estimated income tax prepayment.

2 How to calculate the “base amount of estimated income tax prepayment”

The “base amount of estimated income tax prepayment” is calculated as follows.

(1) Calculate the total income from your previous year’s income fixed as of May 15 of the year. If you have incomes subject to separate taxation such as income from forestry or retirement income (excluding income from dividends of listed stocks, etc. for which you choose to use separate taxation), or capital gains, occasional income, miscellaneous income or temporary income to which average taxation is applied, those incomes should be excluded from the calculation of the total income.

(2) Calculate the total taxable income by subtracting deductions from income of previous year from the total income described in (1).

(3) Calculate the tax amount on the total taxable income described in (2). If you apply the credit for officially proclaimed natural disasters in the previous year, calculate the tax amount without applying this credit.

(4) If a part or all of the total income described in (1) are subject to withholding tax, subtract the withholding tax amount of previous year on the total income (excluding withholding tax amount on the incomes which are excluded in the calculation of the total income described in (1))from the tax amount described in (3).

 If the “base amount of estimated income tax prepayment”, the result of (4), is ¥150,000 or more, you need to pay estimated income tax prepayment. The notice of the amount of estimated income tax prepayment is to be sent to you by the district director of the tax office which has jurisdiction over your place for tax payment on or before June 15 of the year.

3 The amount and the period for payment of estimated income tax prepayment

 You must pay one third of the “base amount of estimated income tax prepayment” in each installment. The first installment is to be paid from July 1 to July 31 and the second installment is to be paid from November 1 to November 30.
The amount of estimated income tax prepayment is to be settled by filing the final tax return for the year.

Note. The amount and the period for payment for certain agricultural income earner differ from those mentioned above.

4 Application for reduction of estimated income tax prepayment

If the estimated income tax amount calculated by you based on the situation as of June 30 of the year is less than the “base amount of estimated income tax prepayment” for the reasons such as: closing or suspension of your business, unemployment, business depression, losses resulting from natural disasters, theft or embezzlement, medical expenses or an increase in the number of dependents, you can submit an “Application for reduction of estimated income tax prepayment” to the district director of the tax office which has jurisdiction over your place for tax payment by July 15.
And if the application is approved by the district director of the tax office, the amount of estimated income tax prepayment will be reduced.
When an application for reduction is only for the second installment, the application should be submitted by November 15 (In this case, you will calculate your estimated income tax amount based on the situation as of October 31 of the year.).

Note. If these due dates fall on Saturdays, Sundays or National Holidays etc., the days following these days will be the due date.

(上記 国税庁HPより引用)

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Credit for foreign taxes

1 What is credit for foreign taxes?

Basically, residents have an obligation to pay income tax on incomes derived from both sources in Japan and sources abroad (See the “INCOME TAX GUIDE FOR FOREIGNERS” for resident status and the scope of taxable income.).
If a resident pays foreign income taxes in accordance with foreign laws and ordinances on the same income from sources abroad, there’ll be international double taxation.
In order to adjust this double taxation, a certain amount of foreign income taxes can be credited against Japanese income tax.
This system is called credit for foreign taxes.

2 Calculation of credit for foreign taxes

Foreign income taxes can be credited against Japanese income tax for the year in which foreign income taxes are to be paid.
However, the credit for foreign taxes is limited to the amount calculated by the following formula (hereinafter referred to as a “credit limit”). This means that the credit for foreign taxes is the amount of foreign income taxes to be paid in the year or the credit limit, whichever is smaller.

Japanese income tax for the year * (Total income from sources abroad for the year / Total income for the year)

Note 1: The “Amount of Japanese income tax for the year” is the amount after applying tax credits such as credit for dividends, special credit for loans relating to a dwelling, and credit for officially proclaimed natural disasters.

Note 2:The “Total amount of income for the year” is the sum of the total income subject to aggregate taxation and incomes subject to separate taxation by filing (prior to applying special exemption).
If a resident has applied carry-over of net losses, carry-over of casualty losses or other carry-overs of losses, incomes concerned will be the ones before applying these deductions.
If the “Total amount of income for the year” is less than the “Total amount of income from sources abroad for the year”, the “Total amount of income for the year” will be treated as the same amount as the “Total amount of income from sources abroad for the year”.

Note 3: The “Total amount of income from sources abroad for the year” is the sum of the total income subject to aggregate taxation (excluding income from sources in Japan) and incomes subject to separate taxation by filing (excluding income from sources in Japan).
In the case of a non-permanent resident, the “Total amount of income from sources abroad for the year” is limited to income on which Japanese income tax shall be imposed.

Note 4: “Foreign income taxes” qualified for the credit for foreign taxes are taxes that are imposed on individual income by foreign governments or its local authorities in accordance with foreign laws and ordinances.
But the following taxes are not included in “foreign income taxes”, for example.

(a) A tax which a taxpayer can voluntarily claim a refund of after the tax was paid.

(b) A tax whose period of grace for payment can be decided voluntarily by a taxpayer.

(c) A certain amount of tax whose rate was determined from among multiple tax rates based on agreement between a taxpayer and foreign governments or its local authorities and so on.

(d) A tax which is equivalent to additions to a principal tax such as penalty and delinquent tax.

(e) A tax which is imposed on income derived from certain transactions which can’t be considered as usual ones.

(f) If a resident has a non-resident taxpayer period in and before the year, a tax which is imposed on income arising during this period.

(g) A tax which is not taken into account for calculating the credit for foreign taxes by a provision of tax treaties.

(h) If a tax rate applied to a certain income exceeds a limited tax rate provided by tax treaties, the excess amount of tax over the amount calculated by using the limited tax rate.

(i) In the case of a non-permanent resident, a tax which is imposed on income on which Japanese income tax is not imposed.

3 Credit for foreign taxes by carry-over

 A certain amount of foreign income taxes can be credited against Japanese income tax for the year in which foreign income taxes are to be paid.
But a year in which income from sources abroad arises and a year in which foreign income taxes are to be paid do not always correspond with each other.
In order to adjust such mismatch of years, the difference between foreign income taxes and credit limits can be carried over to the following three years.

(1) If the conditions mentioned in both (a) and (b) below are met, the credit for foreign taxes by the carry-over mentioned in (c) below can be applied.

(a) Foreign income taxes to be paid in the year exceed the sum of the credit limit and the credit limit for local tax (30% of the credit limit for the year) for the year (the excess amount hereinafter referred to as an “excess over credit limits”).

(b) There is the credit limit within the preceding three years which is carried over to the year (hereinafter referred to as a “credit limit carried over”).

(c) The excess over credit limits for the year can be credited against Japanese income tax within the credit limit carried over.

[ Illustration ]

explain for Credit for foreign taxes by carry-over

(2) If the conditions mentioned in both (a) and (b) below are met, the credit for foreign taxes by the carry-over mentioned in (c) below can be applied.

(a) Foreign income taxes to be paid in the year are less than the credit limit for the year (the balance hereinafter referred to as a “remaining credit limit”).

(b) There are foreign income taxes to be paid within the preceding three years which are carried over to the year (hereinafter referred to as “foreign income taxes carried over”).

(c) The foreign income taxes carried over can be credited against Japanese income tax within the remaining credit limit for the year.

[ Illustration ]

explain for Credit for foreign taxes by carry-over No.2

4 Adjustment when foreign income taxes are abated

If foreign income taxes are abated in and after the following year of a year in which credit for foreign taxes was applied to those foreign income taxes, the following adjustments are necessary in applying the credit for foreign taxes in the year in which the foreign income taxes are to be abated.
In the case of foreign income taxes abated on and after April 1, 2009, the adjustments are necessary, if foreign income taxes are abated within seven years from the following year of a year in which credit for foreign taxes was applied to those foreign income taxes.

(1) When there are foreign income taxes to be paid in the year and the foreign income taxes are more than the abated amount

(a) Deduct the abated amount from the foreign income taxes to be paid in the year.

(b) Then, apply the credit for foreign taxes to the result of (a).

(2) When there are no foreign income taxes to be paid in the year or foreign income taxes to be paid in the year are less than the abated amount

(a) Deduct the foreign income taxes to be paid in the year from the abated amount.

(b) Then, subtract the result of (a) from the excess over credit limits within the preceding three years.

(3) If there is still unadjusted amount in the abated amount after applying (1) and (2)
The unadjusted amount will be included in gross income of miscellaneous income for the year.

5 Procedure for applying credit for foreign taxes

(1) In order to apply the credit for foreign taxes, it is necessary to state the amount to be credited in the final tax return, the amended return or the request for a correction to the tax return (hereinafter referred to as “returns, etc.”) and attach the “Detailed statement for the credit for foreign taxes”, documents proving that foreign income taxes were imposed and a statement for the calculation of total amount of income from sources abroad, etc.

(2) In order to apply the credit for foreign taxes by the credit limit carried over or the foreign income taxes carried over mentioned in 3 above, the following procedures are needed:

(a) Have filed returns, etc. every year since the oldest year of years in which the carry-over has arisen and have stated the credit limit for each year and foreign income taxes to be paid in each year in each returns, etc.

(b) State the amount to be credited by the carry-over in the returns, etc. for the year in which the credit for foreign taxes by the carry-over is applied.

(c) Attach the “Detailed statement for the credit for foreign taxes” and appropriate documents mentioned in (1) above.

Note: As for the application of credit for foreign taxes for or before 2010, it is applicable only if the amount to be credited are stated in the final tax return and certain documents are attached to it.

(上記 国税庁HPより引用)

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Outline of Withholding Procedure

The employment income withholding process and the tax amount table and application form used for withholding are as outlined below. The tax amount table and application form, etc., are available at tax offices, and can also be found on the National Tax Agency’s website (www.nta.go.jp, in Japanese only).

(上記 国税庁HPより引用)

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2. Procedure for Withholding from Employment Income

The process of withholding from employment income paid to residents is broadly divided into the process of withholding from monthly (daily) salary and bonuses, etc., and the year-end adjustment process at the end of the year. The key points to consider here are: (1) the scope of taxable employment income, (2) the requirements for the application of various deductions, such as exemptions for spouses and dependents, and (3) how to use the tax amount table and the methods for specific tax amount calculations.
(Note) The definitions of resident and non-resident are unrelated to nationality or residence (visa) status. An alien worker having a domicile in Japan or a continuous residence in Japan for 1 year or more is subject to withholding as a resident.

(上記 国税庁HPより引用)

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Payment of Withheld Income Tax 3 Payment Procedure

Withheld income tax shall be paid at a local financial institution (such as a bank or post office) or over the counter at the competent tax office, together with submission of “Statement (Tax Payment Slip) of Collected Income Tax.” (所得税徴収高計算書(納付書))
The kinds and purposes of the Statement are as indicated in the table below. Upon payment, please record in the tax payment slip the reference number designated by the tax office without fail.
Withheld income tax can be paid and the statement submitted via the Internet (for details, please see the “e-Tax” website, www.e-tax.nta.go.jp, in Japanese only).

Statement (tax payment slip) of income tax collected from employment/retirement income, etc. (for general purposes and the special provision for due dates)

Employment income, retirement allowances, and remuneration/fees paid to attorneys at law and tax accountants, etc.

Statement (tax payment slip) of income tax collected from remuneration/fees, etc.

Remuneration/fees other than remuneration/fees paid to attorneys at law and tax accountants, pensions paid under a life insurance contract, casualty insurance contract or similar annuity agreement, or public pensions

Statement (tax payment slip) of income tax collected from interest, etc.

Interest, distribution of revenue from an investment trust or trust issuing specified beneficiary certificates, and distribution of profits under a silent partnership (Tokumei-Kumiai) contract

Statement (tax payment slip) of income tax collected from dividends, etc.

Dividends (excluding distribution of revenue from an investment trust or trust issuing specified beneficiary certificates)

Statement (tax payment slip) of income tax collected from income of a non-resident/foreign corporation

Various types of income paid to a non-resident or a foreign corporation (excluding profit from redemption of discount bonds and consideration for the transfer of listed stocks kept in a specific account for which withholding has been chosen)

Statement (tax payment slip) of income tax collected from redemption profit

Profit from redemption of discount bonds

Statement (tax payment slip) of income tax collected from compensation payments for benefits from installment deposits, etc.

Compensation money for benefits from installment deposits and monetary awards from deposits offering such awards, etc.

Statement (tax payment slip) of income tax collected from adjusted amount of income from any listed stock account for which withholding is chosen

Consideration for the transfer of listed stocks kept in a specific account for which withholding is chosen

(上記 国税庁HPより引用)

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